Nursing In Ghana

INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS: TYPES AND USES (PART 2)

intravenous fluids
intravenous fluids

D5NS 

DESCRIPTION

  • Dextrose 5% in 0.9% saline
  • Hypertonic (560 mOsm)

USES

  • Hypotonic dehydration
  • Replaces fluid sodium, chloride, and calories.
  • Temporary treatment of circulatory insufficiency and shock if plasma expanders aren’t available
  • SIADH (or use 3% sodium chloride).
  • Addisonian crisis

PRECAUTIONS

  • Do not use in patients with cardiac or renal failure because of danger of heart failure and pulmonary edema.
  • Watch for fluid volume overload

D5 1/2 NS 

DESCRIPTION

  • Dextrose 5% in 0.45% saline
  • Hypertonic (406 mOsm)

USES

  • DKA after initial treatment with normal saline solution and half-normal saline solution – prevents hypoglycemia and cerebral edema
  • Most common postoperative fluid
  • Useful for daily maintenance of body fluids and nutrition, and for rehydration.

PRECAUTIONS

In DKA, use only when glucose falls < 250 mg/dl

D5LR

DESCRIPTION

  • Dextrose 5% in Lactated Ringer’s
  • Hypertonic (575 mOsm)

USES

  • Same as LR plus provides about 180 calories per 1000cc’s.
  • Indicated as a source of water, electrolytes and calories or as an alkalinizing agent
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PRECAUTIONS

  • Contraindicated in newborns (≤ 28 days of age), even if separate infusion lines are used (risk of fatal ceftriaxone-calcium salt precipitation in the neonate’s bloodstream).
  • Contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to sodium lactate.

NORMOSOL-R 

DESCRIPTION

  • Normosol
  • Isotonic (295 mOsm)

USES

  • Replaces fluid and buffers pH
  • Indicated for replacement of acute extracellular fluid volume losses in surgery, trauma, burns or shock.
  • Used as an adjunct to restore a decrease in circulatory volume in patients with moderate blood loss

PRECAUTIONS

  • Not intended to supplant transfusion of whole blood or packed red cells in the presence of uncontrolled hemorrhage or severe reductions of red cell volume

Credit: nurseslabs, wikipedia

 

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