- Dextrose 5% in 0.9% saline
- Hypertonic (560 mOsm)
- Hypotonic dehydration
- Replaces fluid sodium, chloride, and calories.
- Temporary treatment of circulatory insufficiency and shock if plasma expanders aren’t available
- SIADH (or use 3% sodium chloride).
- Addisonian crisis
- Do not use in patients with cardiac or renal failure because of danger of heart failure and pulmonary edema.
- Watch for fluid volume overload
D5 1/2 NS
- Dextrose 5% in 0.45% saline
- Hypertonic (406 mOsm)
- DKA after initial treatment with normal saline solution and half-normal saline solution – prevents hypoglycemia and cerebral edema
- Most common postoperative fluid
- Useful for daily maintenance of body fluids and nutrition, and for rehydration.
In DKA, use only when glucose falls < 250 mg/dl
- Dextrose 5% in Lactated Ringer’s
- Hypertonic (575 mOsm)
- Same as LR plus provides about 180 calories per 1000cc’s.
- Indicated as a source of water, electrolytes and calories or as an alkalinizing agent
- Contraindicated in newborns (≤ 28 days of age), even if separate infusion lines are used (risk of fatal ceftriaxone-calcium salt precipitation in the neonate’s bloodstream).
- Contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to sodium lactate.
- Isotonic (295 mOsm)
- Replaces fluid and buffers pH
- Indicated for replacement of acute extracellular fluid volume losses in surgery, trauma, burns or shock.
- Used as an adjunct to restore a decrease in circulatory volume in patients with moderate blood loss
- Not intended to supplant transfusion of whole blood or packed red cells in the presence of uncontrolled hemorrhage or severe reductions of red cell volume
Credit: nurseslabs, wikipedia